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The SOL-9000 is a large spherical computer that contains the digital versions of eight members of the Gazel Ministry. They were put there by Karellen at the request of Cain in 9506. They are seen as blue and red faces in the "fishbowl-like" ship (the Ezekiel) throughout the game.
After the death of the Gazel Ministry members 500 years prior to Xenogears Episode V, this machine was constructed to hold their data and personalities. The SOL-9000 was the only machine that could activate the Gaetia Key. Karellen slowly erased the Gazel Ministry from the SOL-9000 after the Gaetia Key was used and the digitalized Gazel Ministry had expired their use. This also gave Karellen complete control over Project Noah and a chance to begin the Ark Plan.
It is unknown what SOL-9000 is a reference to. It is worth noting that "sol" is the Latin word for "sun", and the computer may symbolize a sun due to being a sphere. The sun constantly orbits around Earth as if it is presence always watching the people on it, possibly a parallel to how the Gazel Ministry is constantly watching the people on the Xenogears planet.
The 9000 may be a reference to it being built and used in the E.C. 9000s. Alternatively, it might have been taken from HAL 9000, the infamous main computer of the USSC Discovery from Arthur C. Clarke's 2001: A Space Oddysey. Another possibility is the "SOL 9000" satellite weapon (SOL in that case possibly standing for Satellite Orbital Laser, or a reference to the sun, or possibly both) from the movie Akira.